Materials Characterization

Sankaran, S.


This course covers the following topics: Scope of optical metallographic studies: Image formation, resolving power, numerical aperture, empty magnification, depth of focus, components of microscopes, important lens defects and their correction, principles of phase contrast, interference and polarized light microscopy, elements of quantitative metallography and image processing, sample preparation techniques. X Ray diffraction and their applications: Production and properties of X-ray, absorption of X-rays and filters, X-ray - diffraction directions, diffraction methods. X-ray - diffraction intensities, factors affecting intensity, ‘structure factor’ calculations for simple, body centered, face centered, diamond cubic and hexagonal crystal structures. Working principles of diffractometer, counters and cameras. Indexing of XRD patterns. Precise lattice parameter determination, Chemical analysis by X-ray diffraction & fluorescence, determination of particle size and micro/macro strains. Studies by electron microscopes: Construction and working principles of transmission electron microscopes. Image formation, resolving power, magnification, depth of focus, elementary treatment of image contrasts, important lens defects and their correction. Bright field and dark field images. Stereographic projection and their applications. Formation of selected area diffraction patterns, reciprocal lattice and Ewald sphere construction, indexing of diffraction patterns, sample preparation techniques. Scanning electron microscope; construction, interaction of electrons with matter, modes of operation, image formation of plane and fractured surfaces.

Published by:

National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL)

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