Browsing by Author "Lower, S. (Stephen)"

Now showing items 1-20 of 29

  • Acid-base equilibria and calculations 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    ; Proton donor-acceptor equilibria ; The fall of the proton ; Quantitative treatment of acid-base equilibria ; Acid-base titration; Acid- and base neutralizing capacity; Graphical treatment of acid-base problems; Acid-base ...

  • Acid-base equilibria of the aquatic environment 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Proton donor-acceptor equilibria; pH and the proton free energy; Quantitative treatment of acid-base equilibria; Mixtures of conjugate acids and bases; Logarithmic concentration diagrams; Acid- and base neutralizing ...

  • Acid-base without algebra 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Introduction: why bother?; Getting started: plotting the pH; Acetic acid: constsructing the plot; Acetic acid: pH of HAc and NaAc solutions ; Acetic acid: titration curve; Ammonium formate: a "weak-weak salt; Oxalic acid: ...

  • All about acids and bases 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    1- Introduction: What is an acid? What is a base? 2- Aqueous solutions: pH and titration 3- Proton donors and acceptors 4- Competing for the proton: acid-base reactions 5- Electron pairs: Lewis acids and bases 6- Types ...

  • All about chemical bonding 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    1- Molecules: properties of bonded atoms 2- Models of chemical bonding 3- The shared-electron covalent bond 4- Polar covalence, ionic solids 5- Molecular geometry 6- The hybrid orbital model: introduction 7- More on hybrid ...

  • All about chemical equilibrium 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    1- Introduction to chemical equilibrium 2- The Le Châtelier principle 3- K and Q: what's the difference? 4- Writing and understanding equilibrium expressions 5- Understanding equilibrium calculations

  • All about electrochemistry 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Introduction ; Galvanic cells and electrodes; Cell potentials and thermodynamics; The Nernst equation ; Applications of the Nernst equation ; Batteries and fuel cells ; Electrochemical corrosion ; Electrolytic cells ...

  • Atomic structure and the periodic table 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Quanta: a new view of the world; Light, particles and waves;The Bohr atom; The quantum atom; Atomic electron configurations; Periodic properties of the elements;

  • The basics of atoms, moles, formulas, equations, and nomenclature 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    The chapters in this unit are absolutely essential for anyone embarking on the serious study of Chemistry. The material covered here will be needed in virtually every topic you will encounter in the remainder of your ...

  • Carbonate equilibria in natural waters 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; Distribution of carbonate species in aqueous solutions; Alkalinity and acidity of carbonate-containing waters; E®ects of biological processes on pH and alkalinity; Seawater;

  • Chemical Energetics 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    1- Energy, heat and work in Chemistry 2- The First Law of Thermodynamics 3- Molecules as energy carriers and converters 4- Thermochemistry and calorimetry 5- Some applications of enthalpy and the First Law

  • Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    1- Rates of reactions and rate laws 2- How rates of reactions change wth time 3- Collision and activation: the Arrhenius law 4- Mechanisms: how reactions take place 5- Kinetics of reactions in solution 6- Catalysts and ...

  • Essential Background for general chemistry 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    The Chem1 Virtual Textbook is a resource for General Chemistry aimed mainly at the first-year university level. It offers a more comprehensive, organized, and measured approach than is found in most standard textbooks. ...

  • The fall of the electron (oxidation-reduction) 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Predicting the directions of oxidation-reduction reactions

  • The fall of the proton: why acids react with bases 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Why acids react with bases, but not always

  • The measure of matter 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Units and dimensions ; The meaning of measure; Significant figures and rounding off; Reliability of a measurement; Drawing conclusions from data;

  • Primer on Quantum Theory of the Atom 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Particles and waves; Quantum theory of light; Electrons in atoms;

  • Properties of Gases 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Observable properties of gases; Ideal gas model: the basic gas laws; Moles and mixtures of gases, Dalton's law; Molecules in motion ("KMT-lite"); More on kinetic-molecular theory ("KMT-classic"); Real gases and critical phenomena;

  • Pseudoscience 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Defective science ; "It's only a theory" ; Recognizing pseudoscience ; Why is it important? ; The scientific "establishment" ; pseudoscience links ; pseudoscience in the news ;

  • Redox equilibria in natural waters 

    Lower, S. (Stephen) (2014-04)
    Electron transfer and oxidation state; The Nernst equation and EH; E as a determinant of system composition; Electron activity and pE; pE in water and natOxidizing-reducing capacity; pE - pH diagrams; Redox reactions in ...